Impact: Land dispossession

26 related cases

Natural balance and hydrologic cycle at Sultan Marshes were destroyed due to the construction of dams, wells and drainage channels due to basin-wide irrigated farming support policies that started in Develi Basin in 1973. From the beginning of 2000s, the water quantity of the Sultan Marshes decreased dangerously because of the water-guzzling-products farming, agricultural irrigation, illegal well drilling, losses due to the existing irrigation techniques and less water flow to the marshlands due to the dams; as from 2003 marshlands have almost dried out. The effects on local people were unequal: while landowners adopted agricultural irrigation, loan use, base price, market support systems that were prioritized for the last 25 years, landless farmers who make their own living through reed…

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Kayen Heta Electricity Production Inc. began planning for a hydroelectric power plant construction in Bagbasi town of Erzurums Tortum district in 2009 and got its first HPP licence on 09.06.2010. Local people organized opposition demonstrations in order to get their water access rights back and prevent the negative effects of the project on local flora and fauna. During these protests 6 people were arrested and sentenced for 6 months. The first nationwide demonstration was on 05.09.2011. After the police and gendarmerie intervention to the HHP protest on 26.09.2011 15 people were banned to make contacts with other HPP protesters. As a result of these, Bagbasi Mayor resigned from his party on September 27th. Once again the project was stopped by…

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Once being the biggest salt lake of Europe and second biggest lake of Turkey and despite gaining official protection status of Special Environmental Protection Area since 2000, Tuz Lake and its satellite wetlands (Kulu, Terkesan and Bolluk Lakes, Esmekaya Marshes) face the threat of drying up because of the dominant water polices. Irrigated agriculture carried out intensively in Tuz Lake closed basin is based on illegal groundwater wells. Each year well drillings go deeper and cause the reduction of underground water which naturally feeds the basin, uncontrollable desertification and salinisation. Biological features of the protected area (such as semi-wet habitats) high in endemism are changing and the soil in the region becomes arid and salinised. Currently the biggest water course…

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ACTORS

The Black Sea Coastal Highway Project was initiated in 1987 to ease the access to the Black Sea region and to increase its economic activity. The objective of the project was to construct an uninterrupted highway from Samsun to Artvin, including 6 coastal cities. Mostly due to financial problems, the project was completed in 20 years and opened to traffic in 2007. The roads have been built along the sea, following the coast line and relatively higher than the sea level, disrupting and destroying the cities access and connection to the shore. Consequently, several conflicts emerged in those cities. In 1994, the people of Ordu protested against the damage the highway would create and the 5km part of the road…

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ACTORS

The water sources that feed Ergene River and the agricultural lands that are irrigated with this water are being threatened by industrial and domestic wastes originating from regional factories, the quarries established in Istranca Mountains, unregulated industrialization and unplanned urbanization of the region. As a result, Thraces centuries old agrarian structure is coming to an end and the pollution in Ergene River is jeopardising the habitat of all living creatures. The inhabitants of the region are faced with severe costs every single day. Source: Ejatlas…

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Burdur Gölü havzada yaygınlaşan sulu tarım ile artan su ihtiyacı sebebiyle gölü besleyen dereler üzerine yapılan barajlar ve kontrolsüz yeraltı suyu kullanımı ile 1987’den beri küçülmektedir (Ataol, 2010). Bu küçülme bugün gölün ⅓’ünün kaybına kadar ulaşmış durumda. Burdur Gölü yıllara göre seviye değişimleri ve su alma yapıları arasındaki ilişki T.C. Orman ve Su İşleri Bakanlığı, Su Yönetimi Genel Müdürlüğü tarafından hazırlanan “2015-2019 Burdur Gölü Alt Havzası Eylem Planı”nda yer alan tabloda açıklanmıştır. Bu düşüş ciddi boyutlarda sulak alan habitatı kaybına ve su kuşları için büyük önem taşıyan sığ alanların kurumasına sebep olmuştur (Eken vd., 2006). Ayrıca bu hızlı su düzeyi düşüşü doğal olarak acı olan göl suyunun tuzluluk oranının yirmi sene önceki ölçümlerde Akdeniz’in iki katıyken son ölçümlerde 560 katına…

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COMMODITIES

● Water 

Six small hydroelectric power plants are constructed in the Artvin Kabaca Valley, as part of 200 hydroelectric power plants being constructed or planned to be constructed in the provinces of Rize and Artvin. The constructions result in destruction of forests, destruction of waterbeds and aquatic environment. Fragmentation of natural areas and ravage created by energy transmission lines, destruction of hillsides by earth-moving machinery used in road constructions and filling of river beds constitute subjects of serious contestations not only in the region but also in the country. Source: Ejatlas…

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In the late 1970s, the Turkish Government launched the Southeastern Anatolian Project (GAP project), with the declared aim to produce cheap energy and to encourage land redistribution by increasing the amount of irrigable land. However, very high costs, project delays, negative environmental impacts of dams, and the failed construction of many of the irrigation works, turned GAP into a really difficult problem to solve over the years. The Ilisu Dam Project is the third biggest hydroelectric project of the GAP, with 1,200 MW of capacity installed; its reservoir will submerge approximately 300 km2 in the Tigris Valley. Even though project works started in 1954 the project has only been approved in late 1990s. Since then, several consortia of European companies…

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The 3rd bridge over Bosphorus (or as officially called “Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge”) is a bridge and interlinking highways project in the northern part of Istanbul on the Bosphorous, between Garipce and Poyrazkoy villages. There are already two bridges on the Bosphorus connecting the two continents (Asia and Europe). Th plans for thhis third bridge project has first come up in 1993 and has ever since encountered an increasing number and variety of opponent groups. The current project was not subject to an Environmental Impact Assessment according to the Turkish Environmental Legislation since it was claimed to be a nationwide strategic project which was already planned before the EIA legislation came into force. During the decision-making process people who would…

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Residents of Artvin, a small town in the North-eastern Black Sea region in Turkey continue to resist the opening of a dangerous gold and copper mine in the Cerattepe area for more than 20 years. After years of resistance, several mining companies, and several court rulings against the project, the conflict is still on-going.The first attempts to mine the gold and copper in the area started in the beginning of 1980s. After several years of explorations, the first mining license was given in 1987. In the early 1990s, the license was transferred to the international mining company Cominco, who started further explorations and test drillings. Even after the test drillings, the negative effects were observed immediately when livestock died suddenly….

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It is reported that about 300 large and small scale industries are located in Dilovasi Organized Industrial Zone among which 193 are active and that roughly 20,000 people are employed in these. The majority of these represent the metallurgy and chemical sectors. Altogether, these companies comprise 17% of Turkeys industry. The bowl shape topographic structure of Dilovasi and the presence of iron and steel smelting plants as well as paint and chemical facilities negatively influence the air quality of the region. Research studies based on death records have been conducted demonstrating that cancer-related cases range over the worlds and Turkeys averages. In regional measurements, the PM10 air pollution indicator was confirmed to be 3,5 times higher than the accepted limit…

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